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Another project the area was involved in was organizing video study groups during teacher training. Details about this new concept of teacher education can be found within Video Study Groups, which is available at http://www.atwoodpublishing.com/books/150.htm

Visual Pedagogy for World Cultures: How Teachers Guide Students to Act on Images For the Construction of Reality of the Target Culture

World language curricular materials, including commercially published materials as well as teacher-provided or teacher-created original materials provide students with abundant images for the learning of culture. It is, therefore, impossible to make sense of texts without considering the cultural meanings that the images suggest. Teachers are, however, faced with a considerable challenge in constructing and implementing a visual pedagogy. Many research-based studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of using images in students’ learning of language and culture. However, these studies lay emphasis on the analysis of images and on the resourcefulness of images for the learning of language and culture. They do not suggest a vivid picture of pedagogy showing how the teacher interacts with students, encouraging them to engage in images and in meaning construction in the classroom setting. Hyo-Kyung Ahn believes that a study of visual pedagogy, as constructed by teachers who have enthusiasm for using images, will suggest a rich picture of ways of using images situating the teacher, students, and images as active triadic agents. In addition, she believes that the teacher’s use of images when investigated with the undergirding pedagogical beliefs will provide a richer picture of visual pedagogy, suggesting the causal mechanism of integrating images. She uses Piagetian constructivism that suggests active methods in studying visual pedagogy. Active methods, situating the teacher as an ongoing researcher, enable to vision the teacher as the subject who continuously reflects on students’ action on images, while providing a good pool of images and eliciting cooperative social interactions for learning.

Sequential Bilingual (Korean/English) Children’s Emerging Voices in Peer Interaction

There is a power-driven unequal relationship among the languages spoken in the U.S. This situation has a significant impact on linguistic minority children’s identity because of the close relationship between language and identity. Hyu-Yong Park’s project focuses on a group of Korean children who are enrolled in a Weekend school for heritage language learning. This project deals with the problems and situations that the Korean linguistic minority children are experiencing in terms of the issues of their identity struggle, linguistic imperialism, governance, and inclusion/exclusion of the modern school. To sum up, the purpose of the study is to investigate how Korean linguistic minority children are struggling to build up their identity and acclimate to their heritage language (Korean) as well as to their host society, i.e., the U.S. where a hierarchical relationship between languages and ethnic groups prevails.

Intercultural and Systemic Dynamics in International Student Teaching: The Cases of Prospective U.S. Teachers in Ecuador

Complex human interaction systems surround all communication activities. The field of education is the locus of communication targeting teaching and learning. Therefore, not only instructional content design but also content communication –the nature of communication between teachers and students— needs to be carefully studied. Every interaction a student has with a peer and the teacher is important. In any classroom, the socialization process could indeed provide vital opportunities for personal development and simulating life in society. It is critical that teachers develop and model deep understandings of these communication processes. This becomes even more important in classrooms with teachers and students from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. The encounters with difference can easily result in argumentation and conflict. In this regard, an emerging concern for teacher educators across the globe today has become finding effective ways of preparing teachers to teach in various contexts (schools and communities in different regions). One approach towards helping students build intercultural sensitivity is domestic and international field experiences that target cultural immersion. A. Cendel Karaman explores the criticality of awareness and reflection during communication activities in field experiences in teacher education. His focus is on studying the place of a heightened global awareness of the world and human interaction and how this relates to becoming a teacher. Prospective world language education teachers have the option of spending one semester teaching abroad. International student teaching provides experiences with new cultures, school systems, and language communities. Among the analytical lenses Cendel utilizes in his research are Ulrich’s critical heuristics— with questions regarding partiality in intercultural viewpoints and the recognition of the relativity of claims for the interpretations of experienced realities based on worldviews. Cross-cultural speech situations are studied with a focus on verifying whether dialogical and argumentation break-offs and opposition are valued and integrated.

Karaman & Tochon (2007) focused on the intercultural communication experiences of a group of U.S. prospective teachers. The participants were student teaching in Ecuador. They experienced two types of ideological and cultural conflicts. These were (1) conflicts that were pedagogical in nature; and (2) conflicts in their visions of reality when their worldviews differed from those of the host community. Their ideologies about pedagogy and day-to-day worldviews were challenged. These included their ways of perceiving how a teacher should behave in a classroom situation or in society and how activities should be planned. Student teachers’ clashes inside a new cultural reality signaled the complex dynamics in intercultural communication. Through living with host families and working with foreign mentors at schools abroad, the prospective teachers had access to several contexts that could be deemed conducive to intercultural development. One primary goal of their program was to prepare them for future cross-cultural encounters with this cultural immersion experience. By posing guiding questions devised from critical systems theory, we were able to explore whether particular intercultural communication patterns could lead to intercultural reasoning.

Karaman, A. C., & Tochon, F. V. (2007). International Student Teaching in World Language Education: Critical Criteria for Global Teacherhood. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies.

Here is the abstract and an excerpt of: Tochon, F. V., & Black, N. J. (2006). Psychosemiotic Analysis of Reflective Conflict and Equilibrium in a Video Study Group. International Journal of Applied Semiotics, 5(1-2), 219-233.

Psychosemiotic Analysis of Reflective Conflict and Equilibrium in a Video Study Group

The video study group provides a flexible coming together of student teachers involved in semiotic inquiry on their own actions and professional contexts, with the goal of professional development. This article conceptualizes professional development through reflective equilibrium. It investigates how conflicts emerging in a video study group setting help preservice teachers both theorize their personal teaching practice and further refine these theories through response to differing peer perspectives. A psychosemiotic framework is employed to analyze the degrees to which resulting reflective conflicts lead to adopting life-long professional developmental actions in accordance with students' learning. Creative conceptual blending supports reflective equilibrium, which becomes the basis for further 'phronesis', or reflections on practice based on principles of social justice. One major aspects of this article is to present reflective meta-stages student teachers developed while evolving conceptually during video study groups

Tochon, F. V., & Black, N. J. (2006). Psychosemiotic Analysis of Reflective Conflict and Equilibrium in a Video Study Group. International Journal of Applied Semiotics, 5(1-2), 219-233.

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